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Microbial exopolisaccharides

Year 2016, Volume 20, Issue 2, 193 - 202, 01.08.2016
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.91974

Abstract

Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are carbohydrate biopolymers that are produced and secreted by various microorganisms into their surroundings. EPS protects the microorganism against drying, phagocytosis and phage attack and acts as a barrier in stress conditions such as light, heat and sound. Various microbial EPSs are produced industrially and used in food, petroleum, chemistry and cosmetics for various purposes. They are used in food industry as stabilizer, emulsifier, gelling agent, humectant, thickener etc. Xanthan and gellan are the most extensively used EPSs for these purposes. Other important EPSs such as dextran, curdlan, levan, pullulan and bacterial alginates have also limited applications in the industry. In this review, features and importance of microbial EPSs are discussed.

References

  • P.V. Bhaskar, N.B. Bhosle, “Microbial extracellular polymeric substances in marine biogeochemical processes,” Curr. Sci India, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 45-53, Jan. 2005.
  • H.J. Ruijssenaars, “Enzymatic modification of bacterial exopolysaccharides - xanthan lyase as a tool for structural and functional modification of xanthan,” Ph.D. dissertation, Wageningen Univ., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2001.
  • B. Gürleyendağ, “Polisakkarit Üreten Ekstremofillerin Belirlenmesi Ve Ekzopolisakkarit Üretimi,” M.S. thesis, Dept., Biochem., Marmara Univ., İstanbul, Türkiye, 2006.
  • F. Donot, A. Fontana, J.C. Baccou, S.S. Galindo, “Main Examples Of Synthesis, Excretion, Genetics And Extraction,” Carbohyd Polym, vol. 87, pp. 951– 962, Jan. 2012.
  • E.T. Öner, “Microbial Production of Extracellular Polysaccharides from Biomass,” Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries, Green Energy and Technology, pp. 35-56, 2013.
  • T. Kumar, “Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances Production, Isolation and Applications,” IOSR J Pharmacol, vol. 2 (2), pp. 276-281, Mar. 2012.
  • S. Bragadeeswaran, R. Jeevapriya, K. Prabhu, S.S. Rani, S. Priyadharsini, T. Balasubramanian, “Exopolysaccharide production by Bacillus cereus GU812900, a fouling marine bacterium,” Afr J Microbiol Res, vol. 5(24), pp. 4124-4132, Oct. 2011.
  • A. Mishra, B. Jha, “Microbial Exopolysaccharides.” in The Prokaryotes, 4th ed., vol. 11, E. Rosenberg, Ed. New York Dordrecht London, 2013, pp. 179-192.
  • R.P. Madiedo, J. Hugenholtz, P. Zoon, “An Overview Of The Functionality Of Exopolysaccharides Produced By Lactic Acid Bacteria,” Int Daıry J, vol.12, pp. 163–171, Nov. 2002.
  • I.W. Sutherland, “Microbial Polysaccharide Products,” Biotechnol Genet Eng, vol.16, pp. 217229, Mar. 1999.
  • D. Onbaşılı, “Çevredeki Organik Kirleticilerden Biyoteknolojik Olarak Bazı İkincil Metabolitlerin Üretimi,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Sci., Gazi Univ., Ankara, Türkiye, 2006.
  • B. Vu, M. Chen, R.J. Crawford, E.P. Ivanova, “Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation,” Molecules, vol.14, pp. 2535-2554, Jul. 2009.
  • Nova Science Publishers Handbook of Carbohydrate Polymers, R. Ito, Y. Matsuo, Ed. H. Kazak, E.T. Öner, R.F.H. Dekker, “Extremophiles As Sources Of Exopolysaccharides,”, pp. 605-619, 2010.
  • R.P. Singh, M.K. Shukla, A. Mishra, P. Kumari, C.R.K. Reddy, B. Jha “Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides from seaweed associated bacteria Bacillus licheniformis,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.84, pp. 1019– 1026, Dec. 2011.
  • Y.P. Chen, P. Zhang, J.S. Guo, F. Fang, X. Gao, C. Li, “Functional Groups Characteristics Of EPS İn Biofilm Growing On Different Carriers,” Chemosphere, vol.92, pp. 633–638, Mar. 2013.
  • A.S. Kumar, K. Mody, B. Jha, “Bacterial exopolysaccharides – a perception,” J Basic Microb, vol.47, pp. 103–117, Apr. 2007.
  • A.D. Welman, I.S. Maddox, “Exopolysaccharides From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Perspectives And Challenges,” Trends Biotechnol, vol.21, pp.269274, Jun. 2003.
  • Z. Yang, “Antimicrobial Compounds And Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced By Lactic Acid Bacteria Structures And Properties,”, M.S. thesis, Dept. of Food Tech., University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, 2000.
  • F. Minervini, M.D. Angelis, R.F. Surico, M. Ganzle, M. Gobbetti, “Highly Efficient Synthesis Of Exopolysaccharides By Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 During Growth İn Hydrolyzed Wheat Flour Agar,” Int J Food Microbiol, vol.141, pp.130– 135, Mar. 2010.
  • R.S. Singh, G.K. Saini, J.F. Kennedy, “Pullulan: Microbial sources, production and applications,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.73, pp.515–531, Sep. 2008.
  • E.T. Öner, F.J. Akbuğa, S. Genç, A.D. Sezer, “Yeni Bir Mikrobiyal Biyopolimerin Endüstriyel Uygulama Alanlarının Araştırılması,” Proje No: 108M193, İstanbul, 2010.
  • C.D. Ladrat, C. Sinquin, L. Lebellenger, A. Zykwinska, S. Colliec-Jouault, “Exopolysaccharides produced by marine bacteria and their applications as glycosaminoglycan-like molecules,’’ Frontiers in Chem, vol.2, pp.1-15, Aug. 2014.
  • Milci, S., Yaygın, H., “Laktik Asit Bakterileri Tarafından Üretilen Ekzopolisakkaritler ve Süt Ürünlerindeki Fonksiyonları,” Gıda Der., vol.30 (2), pp.123-129, Mar. 2005.
  • A. Staudt, “Identification Of Environmental Factors Critical To The Production Of Exopolysaccharides By Rhizobıum Tropici” M.S. thesis, Dept. Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, Notre Dame Univ., Notre Dame, USA, 2009.
  • I.W. Sutherland, “Novel And Established Applications Of Microbial Polysaccharides,” Trends Biotechnol, vol.16, pp.41-46, Jan. 1998.
  • D. Low, J.A. Ahlgren, D. Horne, D.J. McMahon, C.J. Oberg, J.R. Broadbent, “Role of Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C capsular exopolysaccharide in cheese moisture retention,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.64, pp.2147-2151, Jun. 1998.
  • M. Yılmaz, “Bazı Bacıllus Türlerinin Ekzopolisakkarid (Eps) Üretimi,” Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Fen Bil. Ens., Niğde Üniversitesi, Niğde, Türkiye, 2006.
  • Y. Fang, S. Ahmed, S. Liu, S. Wang, M. Lu, Y. Jiao, “Optimization of antioxidant exopolysaccharidess production by Bacillus licheniformis in solid state fermentation,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.98, pp.1377– 1382, Nov. 2013.
  • J.A. Mata, V. Béjar, I. Llamas, S. Arias, P. Bressollier, R. Tallon, M.C. Urdaci, E. Quesada, “Exopolysaccharides produced by the recently described halophilic bacteria Halomonas ventosae and Halomonas anticariensis,” Res Microbio, vol.157, pp.827–835, Nov. 2006.
  • R.D. Philippis, M. Vincenzini, “Exocellular Polysaccharides From Cyanobacteria And Their Possible Applications,” FEMS Microbiol Rev, vol.22, pp.151-175, Aug. 1998.
  • G.Y. Çelik, B. Aslım, Y. Beyaztlı, “Characterization And Production Of The Exopolysaccharide (EPS) From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa G1 And Pseudomonas Putida G12 Strains,” Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, s.178–182, Jan. 2008.
  • F. Zhou, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Han, L. Ai, B. Guo, “Exopolysaccharides produced by Rhizobium radiobacter S10 in whey and their rheological properties,” Food Hydrocolloid, vol.36, pp.362368, Aug. 2014.
  • F. Freitas, V.D. Alves, M.A.M. Reis, “Advances İn Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: From Production To Biotechnological Applications,” Trends Biotechnol, vol, 29, pp.388-398, Aug. 2011.
  • S. Samal, “Production And Characterizatıon Of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Of Rhizobium With Different Carbon Sources,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Of Life Sci., Nat.Ins. Of Tech., Rourkela, India, 2012.
  • F. Ye, Y. Ye, Y. Li, “Effect of C/N ratio on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of activated sludge flocs,” J Hazard Mate, vol.188, pp.37–43, Apr. 2011.
  • M.B.I. Kassim, “Production and characterization of the polysaccharide “xanthan gum’’ by a local isolate of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris,” Afr J Biotechnol, vol.10, pp.16924-16928, Nov. 2011.
  • A. Becker, F. Katzen, A. Pühler, L. Ielpi, “Xanthan gum biosynthesis and application: a biochemical /genetic perspective,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.50, pp.145-152, Aug. 1998.
  • E. Jambi, X.W. Ni, B. McNeil, A, Basaleh, L. Harvey, “Comparative Study of the Power Consumption on the Production of Xanthan Using the Traditional Industrial Stirred Tank Reactor and a Novel Oscillatory Baffled Reactor,” Life Sci. J, vol.10, pp.2241-2249, Feb. 2013.
  • M. Papagianni, S.K. Psomas, L. Batsilas, S.V. Paras, D.A. Kyriakidis, M.L. Kyriakides, “Xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris in batch cultures,” Process Biochem, vol.37, pp.73–80, Sep. 2001.
  • A. Patel, J.B. Prajapati, “Food and Health Applications of Exopolysaccharides produced by Lactic acid Bacteria,” Adv Dairy Res, vol. 1, Issue 2, pp.1-7, 2013.
  • K.M. Nampoothiri, R.R, Singhania, C. Sabarinath, A. Pandey, “Fermentative production of gellan using Sphingomonas paucimobilis,” Process Biochem, vol.38, pp.1513-1519, Nov. 2003.
  • R.M. Banik, B. Kanari, S.N. Upadhyay, “Exopolysaccharide of the gellan family: prospects and potential,” World J Microb Biot, vol.16, pp.407-414, Jul. 2000.
  • I.W. Sutherland, “Microbial Polysaccharides From Gram-Negative Bacteria,” Int Dairy J, vol:11, pp.663–674, Oct. 2001.
  • Deacetylated polysaccharide S-60, K.S. Kang, G.T. Colegrave, G.T. Veeder, US Patent, 4326052,1982.
  • X. Duan, Z. Chi, L. Wang, X. Wang, “Influence Of Different Sugars On Pullulan Production And Activities Of A-Phosphoglucose Mutase, UDPGPyrophosphorylase And Glucosyltransferase Involved In Pullulan Synthesis In Aureobasidium pullulans Y68,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.73, pp.587– 593, Sep. 2008.
  • T.D. Leathers, “Biotechnological production and applications of pullulan,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.62, pp.468–473, Oct. 2003.
  • K.I. Shingel, “Current knowledge on biosynthesis, biological activity, and chemical modification of the exopolysaccharide, pullulan,” Carbohyd Res, vol.339, pp.447–460, Jul. 2004.
  • D.K. Kachhawa, P. Bhattacharjee, R.S. Singhal, “Studies on downstream processing of pullulan,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.52, pp.25–28, Aug. 2003.
  • S. Srikanth, M. Swathi, M. Tejaswini, G. Sharmila, C. Muthukumaran, M.K. Jaganathan, K. Tamilarasan, “Statistical Optimization Of Molasses Based Exopolysaccharide And Biomass Production By Aureobasidium pullulans MTCC 2195,” Biocatal Acta Biotechnol, vol.3, pp.7–12, Jul. 2014.
  • T. Funami, K. Nishinari, “Gelling characteristics of curdlan aqueous dispersions in the presence of salts,” Food Hydrocolloid, vol.21, pp.59–65, Jan. 2007.
  • C. Wu, C. Yuan, S. Chen, D. Liu, X. Ye, Y. Hu, “The effect of curdlan on the rheological properties of restructured ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp.) meat gel,” Food Chem, vol.179, pp.222–231, Jul. 2015.
  • J. Franken, B.A. Brandt, S.L. Tai, F.F. Bauer, “Biosynthesis of Levan, a Bacterial Extracellular E. Ergene, A. Avcı Mikrobiyel Ekzopolisakkaritler 202 SAÜ Fen Bil Der 20. Cilt, 2. Sayı, s. 193-202, 2016 Polysaccharide, in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Plos One, vol.8, pp.1-14, Oct. 2013.
  • M. Chung, D.Kim, A.E. Herr, “Polymer sieving matrices in microanalytical electrophoresis”, Analyst, vol.135, pp.5635-5654, 2014.
  • R.D. Gately, H. Warren, M. Scardamaglia, T. Romeo, C. Bittencourt, Marc in het Panhuis. “Sonication-induced effects on carbon nanofibres incomposite materials”, RSC Adv, vol.5, pp. 19587-19555

Mikrobiyel ekzopolisakkaritler

Year 2016, Volume 20, Issue 2, 193 - 202, 01.08.2016
https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.91974

Abstract

Mikrobiyel ekzopolisakkaritler (EPS) birçok mikroorganizma tarafından üretilerek dış ortama salgılanan karbonhidrat yapısındaki biyopolimerlerdir. EPS, mikroorganizmayı kurumadan, fagositozdan, faj etkisinden korur, ısı, ışık, ses gibi stres ortamında bariyer görevi görür.  Endüstriyel amaçla üretilen EPS’ler genellikle gıda, kozmetik, petrol, kimya gibi alanlarda kullanılmaktadır. Mikrobiyel ekzopolisakkaritler gıdalarda stabilizatör, emülgatör, jelleştirme ajanı, nem tutucu, kıvam verici gibi amaçlarla kullanılmaktadır. Bu amaç için en çok kullanılan mikrobiyel ekzopolisakkaritlerin başında ksantan ve jellan gelmektedir. Bunların yanında, dekstran, kurdlan, levan, pullulan, bakteriyel aljinatlar gibi önemli özelliklere sahip EPS’lerin kısıtlı da olsa kullanımları mevcuttur. Bu derlemede, mikrobiyel EPS’lerin özellikleri ve önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. 

References

  • P.V. Bhaskar, N.B. Bhosle, “Microbial extracellular polymeric substances in marine biogeochemical processes,” Curr. Sci India, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 45-53, Jan. 2005.
  • H.J. Ruijssenaars, “Enzymatic modification of bacterial exopolysaccharides - xanthan lyase as a tool for structural and functional modification of xanthan,” Ph.D. dissertation, Wageningen Univ., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2001.
  • B. Gürleyendağ, “Polisakkarit Üreten Ekstremofillerin Belirlenmesi Ve Ekzopolisakkarit Üretimi,” M.S. thesis, Dept., Biochem., Marmara Univ., İstanbul, Türkiye, 2006.
  • F. Donot, A. Fontana, J.C. Baccou, S.S. Galindo, “Main Examples Of Synthesis, Excretion, Genetics And Extraction,” Carbohyd Polym, vol. 87, pp. 951– 962, Jan. 2012.
  • E.T. Öner, “Microbial Production of Extracellular Polysaccharides from Biomass,” Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries, Green Energy and Technology, pp. 35-56, 2013.
  • T. Kumar, “Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances Production, Isolation and Applications,” IOSR J Pharmacol, vol. 2 (2), pp. 276-281, Mar. 2012.
  • S. Bragadeeswaran, R. Jeevapriya, K. Prabhu, S.S. Rani, S. Priyadharsini, T. Balasubramanian, “Exopolysaccharide production by Bacillus cereus GU812900, a fouling marine bacterium,” Afr J Microbiol Res, vol. 5(24), pp. 4124-4132, Oct. 2011.
  • A. Mishra, B. Jha, “Microbial Exopolysaccharides.” in The Prokaryotes, 4th ed., vol. 11, E. Rosenberg, Ed. New York Dordrecht London, 2013, pp. 179-192.
  • R.P. Madiedo, J. Hugenholtz, P. Zoon, “An Overview Of The Functionality Of Exopolysaccharides Produced By Lactic Acid Bacteria,” Int Daıry J, vol.12, pp. 163–171, Nov. 2002.
  • I.W. Sutherland, “Microbial Polysaccharide Products,” Biotechnol Genet Eng, vol.16, pp. 217229, Mar. 1999.
  • D. Onbaşılı, “Çevredeki Organik Kirleticilerden Biyoteknolojik Olarak Bazı İkincil Metabolitlerin Üretimi,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Sci., Gazi Univ., Ankara, Türkiye, 2006.
  • B. Vu, M. Chen, R.J. Crawford, E.P. Ivanova, “Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation,” Molecules, vol.14, pp. 2535-2554, Jul. 2009.
  • Nova Science Publishers Handbook of Carbohydrate Polymers, R. Ito, Y. Matsuo, Ed. H. Kazak, E.T. Öner, R.F.H. Dekker, “Extremophiles As Sources Of Exopolysaccharides,”, pp. 605-619, 2010.
  • R.P. Singh, M.K. Shukla, A. Mishra, P. Kumari, C.R.K. Reddy, B. Jha “Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides from seaweed associated bacteria Bacillus licheniformis,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.84, pp. 1019– 1026, Dec. 2011.
  • Y.P. Chen, P. Zhang, J.S. Guo, F. Fang, X. Gao, C. Li, “Functional Groups Characteristics Of EPS İn Biofilm Growing On Different Carriers,” Chemosphere, vol.92, pp. 633–638, Mar. 2013.
  • A.S. Kumar, K. Mody, B. Jha, “Bacterial exopolysaccharides – a perception,” J Basic Microb, vol.47, pp. 103–117, Apr. 2007.
  • A.D. Welman, I.S. Maddox, “Exopolysaccharides From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Perspectives And Challenges,” Trends Biotechnol, vol.21, pp.269274, Jun. 2003.
  • Z. Yang, “Antimicrobial Compounds And Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced By Lactic Acid Bacteria Structures And Properties,”, M.S. thesis, Dept. of Food Tech., University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, 2000.
  • F. Minervini, M.D. Angelis, R.F. Surico, M. Ganzle, M. Gobbetti, “Highly Efficient Synthesis Of Exopolysaccharides By Lactobacillus curvatus DPPMA10 During Growth İn Hydrolyzed Wheat Flour Agar,” Int J Food Microbiol, vol.141, pp.130– 135, Mar. 2010.
  • R.S. Singh, G.K. Saini, J.F. Kennedy, “Pullulan: Microbial sources, production and applications,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.73, pp.515–531, Sep. 2008.
  • E.T. Öner, F.J. Akbuğa, S. Genç, A.D. Sezer, “Yeni Bir Mikrobiyal Biyopolimerin Endüstriyel Uygulama Alanlarının Araştırılması,” Proje No: 108M193, İstanbul, 2010.
  • C.D. Ladrat, C. Sinquin, L. Lebellenger, A. Zykwinska, S. Colliec-Jouault, “Exopolysaccharides produced by marine bacteria and their applications as glycosaminoglycan-like molecules,’’ Frontiers in Chem, vol.2, pp.1-15, Aug. 2014.
  • Milci, S., Yaygın, H., “Laktik Asit Bakterileri Tarafından Üretilen Ekzopolisakkaritler ve Süt Ürünlerindeki Fonksiyonları,” Gıda Der., vol.30 (2), pp.123-129, Mar. 2005.
  • A. Staudt, “Identification Of Environmental Factors Critical To The Production Of Exopolysaccharides By Rhizobıum Tropici” M.S. thesis, Dept. Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, Notre Dame Univ., Notre Dame, USA, 2009.
  • I.W. Sutherland, “Novel And Established Applications Of Microbial Polysaccharides,” Trends Biotechnol, vol.16, pp.41-46, Jan. 1998.
  • D. Low, J.A. Ahlgren, D. Horne, D.J. McMahon, C.J. Oberg, J.R. Broadbent, “Role of Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C capsular exopolysaccharide in cheese moisture retention,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol.64, pp.2147-2151, Jun. 1998.
  • M. Yılmaz, “Bazı Bacıllus Türlerinin Ekzopolisakkarid (Eps) Üretimi,” Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Fen Bil. Ens., Niğde Üniversitesi, Niğde, Türkiye, 2006.
  • Y. Fang, S. Ahmed, S. Liu, S. Wang, M. Lu, Y. Jiao, “Optimization of antioxidant exopolysaccharidess production by Bacillus licheniformis in solid state fermentation,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.98, pp.1377– 1382, Nov. 2013.
  • J.A. Mata, V. Béjar, I. Llamas, S. Arias, P. Bressollier, R. Tallon, M.C. Urdaci, E. Quesada, “Exopolysaccharides produced by the recently described halophilic bacteria Halomonas ventosae and Halomonas anticariensis,” Res Microbio, vol.157, pp.827–835, Nov. 2006.
  • R.D. Philippis, M. Vincenzini, “Exocellular Polysaccharides From Cyanobacteria And Their Possible Applications,” FEMS Microbiol Rev, vol.22, pp.151-175, Aug. 1998.
  • G.Y. Çelik, B. Aslım, Y. Beyaztlı, “Characterization And Production Of The Exopolysaccharide (EPS) From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa G1 And Pseudomonas Putida G12 Strains,” Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, s.178–182, Jan. 2008.
  • F. Zhou, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Han, L. Ai, B. Guo, “Exopolysaccharides produced by Rhizobium radiobacter S10 in whey and their rheological properties,” Food Hydrocolloid, vol.36, pp.362368, Aug. 2014.
  • F. Freitas, V.D. Alves, M.A.M. Reis, “Advances İn Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: From Production To Biotechnological Applications,” Trends Biotechnol, vol, 29, pp.388-398, Aug. 2011.
  • S. Samal, “Production And Characterizatıon Of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Of Rhizobium With Different Carbon Sources,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Of Life Sci., Nat.Ins. Of Tech., Rourkela, India, 2012.
  • F. Ye, Y. Ye, Y. Li, “Effect of C/N ratio on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of activated sludge flocs,” J Hazard Mate, vol.188, pp.37–43, Apr. 2011.
  • M.B.I. Kassim, “Production and characterization of the polysaccharide “xanthan gum’’ by a local isolate of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris,” Afr J Biotechnol, vol.10, pp.16924-16928, Nov. 2011.
  • A. Becker, F. Katzen, A. Pühler, L. Ielpi, “Xanthan gum biosynthesis and application: a biochemical /genetic perspective,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.50, pp.145-152, Aug. 1998.
  • E. Jambi, X.W. Ni, B. McNeil, A, Basaleh, L. Harvey, “Comparative Study of the Power Consumption on the Production of Xanthan Using the Traditional Industrial Stirred Tank Reactor and a Novel Oscillatory Baffled Reactor,” Life Sci. J, vol.10, pp.2241-2249, Feb. 2013.
  • M. Papagianni, S.K. Psomas, L. Batsilas, S.V. Paras, D.A. Kyriakidis, M.L. Kyriakides, “Xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris in batch cultures,” Process Biochem, vol.37, pp.73–80, Sep. 2001.
  • A. Patel, J.B. Prajapati, “Food and Health Applications of Exopolysaccharides produced by Lactic acid Bacteria,” Adv Dairy Res, vol. 1, Issue 2, pp.1-7, 2013.
  • K.M. Nampoothiri, R.R, Singhania, C. Sabarinath, A. Pandey, “Fermentative production of gellan using Sphingomonas paucimobilis,” Process Biochem, vol.38, pp.1513-1519, Nov. 2003.
  • R.M. Banik, B. Kanari, S.N. Upadhyay, “Exopolysaccharide of the gellan family: prospects and potential,” World J Microb Biot, vol.16, pp.407-414, Jul. 2000.
  • I.W. Sutherland, “Microbial Polysaccharides From Gram-Negative Bacteria,” Int Dairy J, vol:11, pp.663–674, Oct. 2001.
  • Deacetylated polysaccharide S-60, K.S. Kang, G.T. Colegrave, G.T. Veeder, US Patent, 4326052,1982.
  • X. Duan, Z. Chi, L. Wang, X. Wang, “Influence Of Different Sugars On Pullulan Production And Activities Of A-Phosphoglucose Mutase, UDPGPyrophosphorylase And Glucosyltransferase Involved In Pullulan Synthesis In Aureobasidium pullulans Y68,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.73, pp.587– 593, Sep. 2008.
  • T.D. Leathers, “Biotechnological production and applications of pullulan,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol.62, pp.468–473, Oct. 2003.
  • K.I. Shingel, “Current knowledge on biosynthesis, biological activity, and chemical modification of the exopolysaccharide, pullulan,” Carbohyd Res, vol.339, pp.447–460, Jul. 2004.
  • D.K. Kachhawa, P. Bhattacharjee, R.S. Singhal, “Studies on downstream processing of pullulan,” Carbohyd Polym, vol.52, pp.25–28, Aug. 2003.
  • S. Srikanth, M. Swathi, M. Tejaswini, G. Sharmila, C. Muthukumaran, M.K. Jaganathan, K. Tamilarasan, “Statistical Optimization Of Molasses Based Exopolysaccharide And Biomass Production By Aureobasidium pullulans MTCC 2195,” Biocatal Acta Biotechnol, vol.3, pp.7–12, Jul. 2014.
  • T. Funami, K. Nishinari, “Gelling characteristics of curdlan aqueous dispersions in the presence of salts,” Food Hydrocolloid, vol.21, pp.59–65, Jan. 2007.
  • C. Wu, C. Yuan, S. Chen, D. Liu, X. Ye, Y. Hu, “The effect of curdlan on the rheological properties of restructured ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp.) meat gel,” Food Chem, vol.179, pp.222–231, Jul. 2015.
  • J. Franken, B.A. Brandt, S.L. Tai, F.F. Bauer, “Biosynthesis of Levan, a Bacterial Extracellular E. Ergene, A. Avcı Mikrobiyel Ekzopolisakkaritler 202 SAÜ Fen Bil Der 20. Cilt, 2. Sayı, s. 193-202, 2016 Polysaccharide, in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” Plos One, vol.8, pp.1-14, Oct. 2013.
  • M. Chung, D.Kim, A.E. Herr, “Polymer sieving matrices in microanalytical electrophoresis”, Analyst, vol.135, pp.5635-5654, 2014.
  • R.D. Gately, H. Warren, M. Scardamaglia, T. Romeo, C. Bittencourt, Marc in het Panhuis. “Sonication-induced effects on carbon nanofibres incomposite materials”, RSC Adv, vol.5, pp. 19587-19555

Details

Subjects Engineering
Published Date Ağustos 2016
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Erdi ERGENE


Ayşe AVCI

Publication Date August 1, 2016
Application Date October 12, 2015
Acceptance Date January 16, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 20, Issue 2

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Bibtex @research article { saufenbilder261142, journal = {Sakarya University Journal of Science}, eissn = {2147-835X}, address = {}, publisher = {Sakarya University}, year = {2016}, volume = {20}, number = {2}, pages = {193 - 202}, doi = {10.16984/saufenbilder.91974}, title = {Microbial exopolisaccharides}, key = {cite}, author = {Ergene, Erdi and Avcı, Ayşe} }
APA Ergene, E. & Avcı, A. (2016). Microbial exopolisaccharides . Sakarya University Journal of Science , 20 (2) , 193-202 . DOI: 10.16984/saufenbilder.91974
MLA Ergene, E. , Avcı, A. "Microbial exopolisaccharides" . Sakarya University Journal of Science 20 (2016 ): 193-202 <http://www.saujs.sakarya.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/24694/261142>
Chicago Ergene, E. , Avcı, A. "Microbial exopolisaccharides". Sakarya University Journal of Science 20 (2016 ): 193-202
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Microbial exopolisaccharides AU - Erdi Ergene , Ayşe Avcı Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.91974 DO - 10.16984/saufenbilder.91974 T2 - Sakarya University Journal of Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 193 EP - 202 VL - 20 IS - 2 SN - -2147-835X M3 - doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.91974 UR - https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.91974 Y2 - 2016 ER -
EndNote %0 Sakarya University Journal of Science Microbial exopolisaccharides %A Erdi Ergene , Ayşe Avcı %T Microbial exopolisaccharides %D 2016 %J Sakarya University Journal of Science %P -2147-835X %V 20 %N 2 %R doi: 10.16984/saufenbilder.91974 %U 10.16984/saufenbilder.91974
ISNAD Ergene, Erdi , Avcı, Ayşe . "Microbial exopolisaccharides". Sakarya University Journal of Science 20 / 2 (August 2016): 193-202 . https://doi.org/10.16984/saufenbilder.91974
AMA Ergene E. , Avcı A. Microbial exopolisaccharides. SAUJS. 2016; 20(2): 193-202.
Vancouver Ergene E. , Avcı A. Microbial exopolisaccharides. Sakarya University Journal of Science. 2016; 20(2): 193-202.
IEEE E. Ergene and A. Avcı , "Microbial exopolisaccharides", Sakarya University Journal of Science, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 193-202, Aug. 2016, doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.91974

Sakarya University Journal of Science (SAUJS)